INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR RADIO UNION – Region 2
Version 1.0 October, 2016 – Unapproved
1.1 Amateur Radio Direction Finding (ARDF) is an amateur radio sport in which competitors by means of a direction finding receiver and a map are to find a number of transmitters hidden in the competition area in the shortest possible time.
1.2 Competitors are individuals of either sex or a team.
1.3 Single competitors or teams are delegated by amateur radio societies being full members of a regional IARU organization. Competitors or teams from countries, which have no IARU member society, shall be accepted if they satisfy the conditions of A6.5. Otherwise they may participate unofficially (i.e. not to be ranked and not to be awarded medals).
1.4 The term event embraces all aspects of an ARDF competition, including organizational matters, e.g. start draws, team official meetings, ceremonies etc. and the competitions, usually on the 3.5 and 144 MHz amateur radio bands.
1.5 An ARDF World Championship is the event to award the title of World Champion in ARDF. A World Championship is organized by an amateur radio society authorized by its corresponding IARU organization.
1.6 A Regional ARDF Championship is the event to award the title of Regional Champion in ARDF. A Regional Championship is organized by an amateur radio society authorized by its corresponding IARU organization.
1.7 A National ARDF Championship is the event to award the title of National Champion in ARDF. A National Championship is organized by an amateur radio society authorized by its corresponding IARU organization.
1.8 An IARU Region 2 Amateur Radio Direction Finding Working Group (hereinafter known as ARDF WG) is a specialized body of the IARU Regional organization, set up by the Regional General Conference.
- General provisions2.1 These rules are valid for and shall be used in connection with IARU World and Regional Championships as well as National Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding.
2.2 These rules are recommended as a basis for any international ARDF event and any Regional or national championships.
2.3 These rules are binding for all persons engaged in ARDF Championships organized under these rules.
2.4 The guiding principle in the interpretation of these rules shall be fairness.
2.5 Any ARDF event shall equally challenge the technical (direction finding), orienteering and physical skills of a competitor.
2.6 All technical (direction finding) and orienteering tasks must be solvable by means of the direction finding receiver and an appropriate map of the competition area.
2.7 Changes to part A of these Rules are subject to approval by the IARU Regional Conference or during the period between Conferences by the Executive Committee (EC). Such changes should, whenever possible, be discussed and agreed with all three regional ARDF specialized bodies on beforehand.
2.8 Changes to part B of these rules are subject to approval by the Regional ARDF WG. Decisions shall be taken by a two thirds majority of votes. For the rules to be valid also for World Championships, the other two regional ARDF specialized bodies shall be consulted before the decision is made.
2.9 Not more than one month after any agreed change (or after approval if needed) in any part of these rules the full text of the updated rules must be published amongst ARDF WG members and on the Regional website by the ARDF WG Chairman.
2.10 If not stated otherwise, any change in any part of these rules shall be in force from the beginning of the year succeeding the year of the decision (or approval if needed).
2.11 The English text of these rules shall be taken as decisive in any dispute arising from a translation into any other language.
- Event program
3.1 ARDF World Championships should be organized every even year and Regional Championships every odd year. Deviations from this rhythm require approval by all (three) regional ARDF specialized bodies at least two years before such changes can become effective.
3.2 The event dates and the program are proposed by the organizer. They require approval by the relevant ARDF specialized body.
- Event preparations
4.1 Any IARU society may apply to organize an ARDF event of world, regional level or National event.
4.2 Applications of interested societies are to be presented to the ARDF WG on official application sheets provided by the ARDF WG.
4.3 Application sheets are to be received by the Chairman of the ARDF WG not later than January 31st three years prior to the year of the World Championships or one year in advance for Regional or National Championships..
4.4 For Regional championships, the ARDF WG shall propose the organizing society to the EC for approval the same year. In case of two or more candidates, the ARDF WG shall determine the organizing society by voting. For ARDF World Championships, the other regional ARDF specialized bodies shall be consulted and their view shall be known before the decision is taken.
5.1 Competitors shall have full passport-holding citizenship of the country of the society they represent. Other nationals living at least for one year in the country in question may also participate for the society of said country; the legitimacy of the residence shall be proven by an official document. Exceptions from this require the approval of the ARDF WG and the societies involved.
5.2 Each participating society shall appoint a team manager to act as a contact person between the team and the organizer. It is the team manager’s duty to see that the team receives all necessary information.
5.3 Competitors participate at their own risk. Insurance against accidents shall be the responsibility of their society or themselves, according to national regulations.
5.4 Each society may enter a team in each category and a number of team officials. The organizer shall fix the maximum number of officials per team, in accordance with the available facilities. This maximum number shall be the same for each team and shall not exceed 5.
5.5 At World competitions, one additional team may be entered by the organizing society. This team shall participate unofficially.
5.6 Competitors from outside the relevant Region may take part in IARU ARDF Regional Championships or National Championships. However, they shall be classified unofficially.
5.7 For National Championships, competitors must be members of the member society.
6.1 The costs of organizing an event are the responsibility of the organizer. To cover the costs of the competition(s), the organizer may charge an entry fee for competitors and an accreditation fee for non-competitors (team officials, media etc.). For an event with several competitions, as an alternative to a total fee for the whole event, the organizer may offer competitors the option of an accreditation fee plus a fee for each competition entered. These fees shall be kept as low as possible and shall be approved by the ARDF WG.
6.2 Unless there is good standard accommodation and board at a very low price, different standards of accommodation and food shall be offered, allowing competitors a choice of price groups. The fees for the competition, the board and the accommodation must be shown as separate amounts. In any case it shall not be obligatory to use the accommodation arranged by the organizer.
6.3 In order for IARU Region 2 Member Societies to be allowed to start as official competitors in an international IARU ARDF championship, they must have fulfilled all their financial obligations to Region 2 by the end of the month prior to the month in which the Championships take place. If requested, facilities will be provided to accept outstanding fees together with payment of the championship fee and expenses.
6.4 The organizing society may allow Member Societies with outstanding fees to Region 2 to take part in such a Championship outside of competition (i.e. not to be ranked and not to be awarded medals).
6.5 The IARU Region 2 Executive Committee may allow Radio Amateur Societies in countries within Region 2, which are not members of IARU Region 2, to officially participate as full competitors in International ARDF championships. Such permission will normally only be given for one year as an introduction to this IARU activity.
6.6 For World Championships, all entry fees have to reach the organizing society not later than six weeks before the event. If approved by the ARDF WG an additional fee can be charged for late payments.
6.61 For Regional and National championships the deadline for fees shall be set by the organizing society.
6.7 Participating societies or the participants themselves shall bear the entry fees, the travelling costs to and from the place of the Championships and the costs of accommodation and board during the event.
6.8 For World Championships only, the organizer shall bear accommodation and board for all members of the International Jury. The relevant IARU Regional organization shall bear travel expenses to and from the place of the Championship for the chairman of the International Jury. The travel costs for the rest of the members of the International Jury shall be borne by the societies to which they belong or by the individuals themselves.
7.1 Societies intending to participate in the World Championships shall send a Letter of Intent to participate to the organizer not later than SIX MONTHS before the event.
7.2 Entries giving the expected number of competitors of each category, the number of team officials and the team manager’s name, address, phone/fax numbers and e-mail address shall reach the organizer not later than TWO MONTHS before the event.
7.3 Each competitor’s name, date of birth and category and the names of the team officials shall reach the organizer as early as possible but not later than 24 hours before the first meeting of the International Jury. Later entries or changes may be made only with permission of both organizer and International Jury.
7.31 For National Championships, each competitor’s name, date of birth and category shall reach the organizer before a date established by the event organizer.
7.4 The organizer may exclude competitors or teams from starting if their entry fee is not paid and no agreement has been reached about payment.
7.5 Competitors may be entered by their society only.
8.1 For World Championships, the International Jury for IARU ARDF Championships shall consist of the following members:
Chairman of the Jury
Secretary of the Jury
Referee at the start
Referee at the finish
Referees in the competition area
8.12 1 For Regional or National Championships, the Jury for IARU ARDF Championships may consist of the following members. The Jury shall consist of at least three members.
Chairman of the Jury
Secretary of the Jury
Referee at the start
Referee at the finish
Referees in the competition area
8.2 The Chairman of the Jury at an IARU World shall be an ARDF International Class Referee appointed by the Regional EC after consultation with the Chairman of the ARDF WG in order to ensure adequate experience. The appointment shall be announced at least nine months prior to the Championship.
8.21 The chairman of the Jury for a Region 2 or National Championship shall be selected by the hosting society after consultation with the Chairman of the ARDF WG in order to ensure adequate experience. The appointment shall be announced at least three months prior to the Championship
8.3 For World competitions, The referees in the competition area, at start and finish and the sitting referee shall be International Class Referees. The sitting referee shall be provided by the organizing society. The Secretary of the Jury and the Technical Director shall both be provided by the organizing society and neither need be an International Class Referee
8.31 – For Region 2 and National Championships, Start, Finish and Sitting referees shall be appointed by the hosting society with agreement from the Jury Chairman.
8.4 For World Championships, the appointed Chairman of the Jury shall, in co-operation with the organizing society, propose all other referees needed for the Championships from the list of approved IARU International Class Referees after consultation with the Chairman of the ARDF WG in order to ensure adequate experience. Referees shall be drawn from as many societies as possible. The names of the members of the International Jury shall be recorded and announced as early as possible before the beginning of the event.
8.41 For Region 2 and National Championships, the appointed Chairman of the Jury shall, in co-operation with the organizing society, propose all other referees needed for the Championships.
8.5 The members of the International Jury shall ensure that rules are followed, mistakes are avoided and that fairness is paramount. They have the authority to require adjustments to be made if deemed necessary to satisfy the requirements of the event.
8.6 The Internationa Jury shall meet before the competition to approve the starting sequence, which is determined by the organizer.
8.7 At the end of each competition the Internationa Jury shall meet to discuss and approve the results and shall decide upon possible protests.
8.8 Any decision of the Internationa Jury will be final only if all Jury members are present. In urgent cases preliminary decisions may be taken if a majority of the Jury members agree on the decision. These decisions are clearly to be marked ”preliminary”.
8.9 If a Jury member declares himself to be prejudiced or unable, the Chairman of the Jury shall nominate a substitute.
8.10 In cases of dispute, a solution shall be reached by means of a vote. In case of a tie, the Chairman of the Jury shall have the casting vote and shall decide. The Secretary of the Jury and the Technical Director both have no votes.
8.11 Decisions of the Jury are final and cannot be challenged.
9.1 A complaint can be made about violation of these rules, mistakes in the results or the organizer’s directions.
9.2 Complaints can be made by event or team officials, competitors or anybody else connected with the event.
9.3 Any complaint shall be made orally or in writing to the organizer as soon as possible. A complaint is adjudicated by the organizer. The complainant shall be informed about the decision immediately.
9.4 There is no fee for a complaint.
10.1 A protest can be entered against the organizer’s decision about a complaint or against major infringements of these rules.
10.2 Protests can be entered by team or event officials only and must be presented to a Jury member for further action by the Jury.
10.3 The Jury shall decide upon the protest and present a decision as soon as possible. It is up to the Jury to make its decision public or inform the protestant only. The decision of the Jury is final and cannot be appealed.
10.4 There is no fee for a protest.
- Media service
11.1 For World Championships only, the organizer shall offer media representatives’ attractive working conditions to observe and report on the event.
11.2 For World Championships, As a minimum, the organizer shall make available to media representatives the following:
hotel accommodation to be paid for by the users
start lists, program booklets and other information on the day prior to the competition
An opportunity to take part in the model event
weather-protected working space for media representatives’ typewriters or computers in the finish area
result lists and maps with courses immediately after the competition
Internet connection, preferably in the finish area
11.3 The organizer shall make every effort to maximize media coverage as long as this does not jeopardize the fairness of the event.
11.4. The program of the event and location of the finish areas shall be published as soon as possible before the event at the event website, posters etc. encouraging spectators and media to visit the finish.
- Event reports
12.1 Not more than one month after the event, the organizer shall submit a report to the ARDF WG Chairman containing:
complete result lists
A map of each competition with course details
composition of the Jury
comments about the event
12.2 One copy of every bulletin, the final program including start lists and a plan of the organization shall be sent to the ARDF WG Chairman for the archives not more than 6 months after the event
- Event information – For World Class vents Only
13.1 The official language during the entire event shall be English. Official information shall be given in writing. It may be given orally only in urgent cases and in response to questions at team officials’ meetings.
13.2 Information from the organizer and / or the ARDF WG shall be given in the form of bulletins. Bulletins shall be published on, or linked to, the event website and the IARU Region 2 ARDF WG website. Bulletin 1 shall be sent to all societies being known as interested in ARDF and the Chairmen of the other two Regional ARDF specialized bodies. Bulletins 2 and 3 shall be sent to the societies having declared their intention to participate. Bulletin 4 (several copies) shall be handed over on arrival to each team.
13.3 Bulletin 1 shall be published 10 months before the event, Bulletin 2 shall be published 6 months before the event and Bulletin 3 shall be published 2 months before the event. Bulletin 4 shall be handed over on arrival of the competitors.
13.4 Bulletin 1 (invitation) shall include the following information:
organizing Society with address, telephone/fax number, e-mail and event website address
dates and types of competitions
any participation restrictions
expected starting fee and costs of accommodation and board
any peculiarities of the event
latest date to reach the organizer and address for Letters of intent
13.5 Bulletin 2 (event information) shall include the following information:
all information given in Bulletin 1
names of the Chairman of the Jury and Sitting Referee
entry fee for competitors and team officials
types and cost of accommodation and board
bank / account details for payments and latest date for funds to be received to avoid late payment fees
latest date for acceptance of entries
description and type of any transport offered
maximum number of officials per team
any permitted deviations from the rules
directions for the registration of media representatives and any extra representatives of the societies
directions for obtaining entry permits (visas)
description of terrain, climate and any hazards
opportunities for training
the exact location of each competition area and its finish (if they have been decided)
description of the marking devices
The technical parameters of the transmitters to be used for each competition
◦ The frequencies and output RF power of transmitters
◦ Description (type, gain, height above the terrain) of the 144 MHz antennas
◦ Description (length, grounding system) of the 3.5 MHz antennas
notes on competition clothing, if necessary
a recent orienteering map(s) of the competition areas, if available
13.6 Competition areas published in bulletin 2 shall be declared as out-of-bounds for all participants from the date of publication.
13.7 Bulletin 3 (Additional event information) shall include the following information:
detailed program of the event
details of the terrain
summary of entries received
sample or 100% size picture of the starting ticket, if used
electronic marking system description, if used
size of the maps (not the paper on which it is printed), scales and vertical contour intervals of the maps for
address and telephone/fax number of the competition office
details of accommodation and food
the exact location of each competition area and its finish
team officials’ meetings
13.8 Bulletin 4 (Final details) shall include following information:
detailed program of the event
any anti-doping requirements
all special rules relevant to the event
any additional regulations and any rule deviations that have been approved
information about each competition:
◦ time limit
◦ list of transmitter and band assignments for each category.
◦ size of the map (not the paper on which it is printed), scale and contour interval of the competition map
◦ start and finish area arrangement, length of corridors
◦ technical parameters of the transmitters to be used for each competition
▪ frequencies and output RF power of transmitters
▪ description (type, gain, height above the terrain) of the 144 MHz antennas
▪ description (length, grounding system) of the 3.5 MHz antennas
start group allocation form for each competition to be filled-in by team leaders and deadline for delivery
all other detailed information about the event site and event itself
13.9 – Region 2 Events – Rather than sending Bulitins, information will be added to the Region 2 event web site. The initial Bulletin will be posted to the site within 8 months of the scheduled event date.
- Competition formats
14.1. ARDF competitions are organized in the following formats:
classic competition (amateur radio band 3.5 MHz)
classic competition (amateur radio band 144 MHz)
sprint (amateur radio band 3.5 MHz)
foxoring. (amateur radio band 3.5 MHz)
14.2 Separate competitions shall take place on each band on different days.
14.3 There is no team classification in the Sprint and Foxoring competitions.
15.1. Competitors are divided into the categories according to their sex and age.
Women (W) Men (M) Age
W19, M19 19 and younger
W21, M21 regardless of age
W35, M40 35/40 and older
W50, M50 50 and older
W60, M60 60 and older
M70 – 70 and older
15.3 Competitors belong to the M19 or W19 category up to the end of the calendar year in which they reach the age of 19.
15.4 Men competitors aged 40 or older or women competitors aged 35 or older belong to each category from the beginning of the calendar year in which they reach the given age.
15.5 To qualify as an IARU World Championship, a minimum of six societies must have applied to participate.
15.6 To establish any official category for World Class events, a minimum of three societies must have entered. This requirement is waved for Region 2 events.
15.7 Each society may enter up to six competitors in total in each category. Each society may enter up to three competitors in each category for each competition.
- Training / model event
16.1 For training purposes the organizing society shall offer a model event on both bands on the day prior to the Classic 2M and 80M events competition to demonstrate the transmitter features, the set-up of transmitters and antennas, the registering devices etc., which will be used in the competitions. If possible, the terrain type and map quality shall also be similar to the competitions.
16.2 Competitors, Jury members, team officials, IARU officials and media representatives shall be invited to participate in the training event.
16.3 Equal opportunities for training shall be offered to all societies.
16.4 Transmitters, antennas, flags and registering devices (for World Class competitions) used in the training event, their installation and setting shall be identical to those used in the competitions. Regular orienteering punches may be used during training events in Region 2 events.
- Starting order
17.1 The start draw shall be supervised by a ARDF International Class Referee who is a member of the Jury. The start draw may be public or private. It may be made by hand or by computer. The start draw shall be done separately for each competition.
17.2 The start list shall be published on or before the day prior to the competition and before the team officials’ meeting.
17.3 All competitors and teams correctly entered shall be drawn, even including competitors who might not have arrived at that time.
17.4 At the registration each team shall allocate its competitors to 3 starting groups, separately for each competition and each category. If a team fails to allocate its competitors to starting groups in time, competitors will be allocated in the order in which they are entered.
17.5 The starting order shall be drawn at random. The draw shall be made in three starting groups (early, middle, late).
17.6 Competitors from the same society and category may not start at the same time or consecutively. If they are drawn to start consecutively, the next competitor shall be inserted between them.
17.7 The competitors within one category start at equal start intervals. The normal start interval is 5 minutes.
17.8 All competitors of a particular category shall start in the same start corridor and at the beginning of the same minute of the 5-minute cycle.
17.9 Competitors participating unofficially shall not start until 15 minutes after the last official competitor has started.
- Team officials’ meeting
18.1 A team officials’ meeting shall be organized on the day prior to each competition. This meeting shall start not later than 19.00 hours. The Chairman of the International Jury shall lead or supervise the meeting.
18.2 All competition material (start number bibs, start lists, transport schedules, latest information, etc.) shall be handed out well before the meeting starts.
18.3 Team officials, and for Region 2 events, the competitors, shall have the opportunity to ask questions during the meeting.
19.1 The terrain shall be suitable for setting competitive ARDF courses without any serious hazards to competitors and avoiding man-made objects which could interfere with direction finding activities.
19.2 The competition area shall not have been used for ARDF for as long as possible prior to the championship – certainly not for the previous two years – to guarantee fair play.
19.3 The competition area shall be placed out-of-bounds to ARDF competitors as soon as it has been selected. All relevant information published in the country of the championship should be handed over to the ARDF WG Chairman for further dissemination.
19.4 Any rights of nature conservation, forestry, hunting, etc. in the area shall be respected.
20.1 The Principles for ARDF Course Planning (see Appendix 2) shall be followed.
20.2 The standard of the courses shall be worthy of international ARDF events. The technical and navigational skill, concentration and running ability of the competitors shall be tested. All courses shall call upon a range of different ARDF techniques.
20.3 Transmitters including the finish beacon shall be located not less than 400 meters apart. The transmitter nearest to the start shall be located not less than 750 meters from the start. Transmitters on different bands shall be located not less than 200 m apart. Both finish beacons are at the same location.
20.4 Course lengths shall be given as the length of the shortest viable route from the start line via the transmitters in optimum order to the finish line.
20.5 Total climb along the shortest viable route shall not exceed 6% of the course length.
20.6 The effective course length is defined as the course length (see 20.4) + 10 times the total climb along it.
20.7 Number of transmitters and course lengths assigned to particular categories: Category number of transmitters effective course length
W19 4…5 + finish beacon 6…8 km
W21 4…5 + finish beacon 7…9 km
W35 4…5 + finish beacon 6…8 km
W50 3…4 + finish beacon 5…7 km
W60 3…4 + finish beacon 4…6 km
M19 4…5 + finish beacon 8…10 km
M21 5 + finish beacon 9…12 km
M40 4…5 + finish beacon 8…10 km
M50 4…5 + finish beacon 6…8 km
M60 3…4 + finish beacon 5…7 km
M70 3…4 + finish beacon 4…6 km
20.8 The composition of the courses (transmitter numbers assigned to particular categories) shall be defined by the Hosting Organization.sitting referee and published in Bulletin 4.
20.9 For Region 2 Competitions the Hosting Organization Sitting Referee shall calculate the parameters defined in rules 20.5 and 20.7 for each of the age categories in each of the Classic race courses that are set, (For world class competions) – and to forward the results to the Chairman of the Jury at least one calendar month prior to the event. The approval of the Chairman of the Jury shall be obtained prior to the overprinting of the maps with course information such as the locations of the start and finish.
- Time limit
21.1 The time limit is the period in which competitor must complete the race. Competitors whose time exceeds the time limit shall not be classified.
21.2 The time limit for each competition shall be decided by the Hosting Organization prior to the event day. , (For world class competions) – by the siting referee and approved by the Chairman of the Jury. The time limit shall be announced in Bulletin 4.
- Restricted areas and routes
22.1 Rules set by the organizing society to protect the environment and any related instructions from the organizer shall be strictly observed by all persons connected with the event.
22.2 Out-of-bounds or dangerous areas, forbidden routes, line features that shall not be crossed etc. shall be described in the information and marked on the map. If necessary, they shall also be marked on the ground. Competitors may not enter, follow or cross such areas, routes or features.
22.3 Compulsory routes and crossing points shall be marked clearly on the map and on the ground. Competitors shall follow the entire length of any marked section of their course.
22.4 The use of official transport during the Championship may be declared mandatory by the organizer
23.1 Maps and additional overprinting shall be drawn and printed according to the IOF International Specification for IOF Maps. The map scale shall be between 1:15000 tor 1:5000, based on the event. Deviations need approval by the ARDF WG.
23.2 Errors on the map and changes which have occurred in the terrain since the map was printed shall be overprinted on the map if they have a bearing on the event.
23.3 The competition map shall cover the whole competition area including start, finish beacon and all transmitters. The start, finish beacon, finish corridor and finish line shall be clearly marked on the map. The start is marked by a triangle (symbol 701), the finish beacon by a circle (symbol 702), the finish corridor by a dashed line (symbol 705) and the finish by two concentric circles (symbol 706).
23.4 Unless otherwise noted, the area covered by the map issued by the organizer shall be considered as the competition area.
23.5 The IARU and its member societies shall have the right of free reproduction of the event maps with courses in their official magazines.
- Equipment used by competitors
24.1 Every competitor shall have a direction finding receiver for the relevant band. The receivers shall meet the Technical Specifications for ARDF Equipment (see Appendix 1, section 1).
24.2 Start number bibs shall be clearly visible and be worn on the upper part of the body and on the back and front of the competitors. The bibs shall not be larger than 25*25 cm with figures at least 14 cm high. The bibs may not be folded or cut.
24.3 As long as the rules of the organizer do not specify otherwise, the choice of clothing and footwear shall be free.
24.4 On the day of the competition, the use of any telecommunication device by competitors or team officials is prohibited until permitted by the organizer. The penalty for this shall be disqualification. If the team official breaks this rule, the whole team shall be disqualified.
- Control cards and registering devices
25.1 Only ARDF WG Approved control cards and registering devices may be used – see Appendix 3.
25.2 The control card shall be supplied to the competitor 10 minutes prior to his/her start at the latest.
25.3 When non-electronic or combined systems are used, competitors are allowed to prepare the control card, e.g. by writing on it, by reinforcing it or by putting it into a bag, but not by cutting-off parts of the control card.
25.4 When electronic systems are used, competitors must have the opportunity to practice with them at the model event.
25.5 Competitors shall be responsible for registering at each transmitter using the registering device provided. They are responsible for correct markings which must be clearly identifiable.
25.6 Missing or unidentifiable control marks shall not be considered, unless it can be established with certainty that the competitor visited the transmitter and that the mark missing or unidentifiable is not the competitor’s fault.
25.7 When systems with visible punch marks are used, at least a part of the marking must be in the appropriate box for this transmitter or in an empty reserve box. One mistake per competitor is acceptable, e.g. marking outside the correct box or jumping one box, provided all markings can be identified clearly. A competitor who attempts to gain advantage by inaccurate marking may be disqualified.
25.8 Competitors who lose their control cards shall be disqualified.
26.1 On arrival at the competition area, competitors shall place their receivers at the point indicated to them by the referee. Spare receivers and components, clearly marked as property of a particular team or competitor, shall be placed at an indicated point just beyond the starting line beside the starting corridor. All transmitters shall remain
OFF (silent) until collection of the receivers is completed.
26.2 All competitors shall have at least 30 minutes for undisturbed preparation and warm-up at the start area. Only competitors who have not started and team officials shall be allowed to enter the holding ( warm-up) area.
26.3 The following information shall be shown on a special board at the start area:
list of transmitter and band assignments for each category.
first start time (in local time)
sample of the flag and registering device
the competition map without overprints
clock showing the official time of the competition
26.4 The start shall be organized with a pre-start before the time start, situated at one edge of the warm-up area. The competitors’ names shall be called or displayed. Beyond the pre-start, only competitors who are starting and media representatives guided by the organizer are allowed.
26.5 Competitors shall enter the pre-start area TEN MINUTES before their own start. At the same time, they shall be given their receivers and maps.
26.6 The start shall be organized so that later competitors and other persons cannot see the maps and the route choices of the starters.
26.7 When the starting signal is given, competitors may switch on their receivers and shall run along the starting corridor. Reaching the end, they shall start searching for the hidden transmitters. Competitors shall not stop in the starting corridor except for a receiver malfunction.
26.8 Competitors, whose receivers fail, may return within their own running time to the start line and take their spare receiver or parts from the referee. It is strictly forbidden to give or take any assistance to or from any person except referees.
26.9 At least two start corridors shall be provided by the organizer. Start corridors shall not be longer than 250 meters. The end of the each corridor shall not be visible either from the start area or from any part of the other corridor(s). The terrain at the end of the starting corridors should offer normal run ability. The end of the start corridor shall be clearly marked.
26.10 Competitors who are late for their start time through their own fault shall be permitted to start. The starting referee shall determine at which time they may start which shall be as soon as possible but taking into consideration ossible influence on other competitors. These late competitors shall be timed, however, as if they had started at their original start time.
26.11 Competitors who are late for their start time because of a fault of the organizer shall be given a new start time.
27.1 Transmitters used at IARU ARDF Championships shall meet the Technical Specifications for ARDF Equipment (see Appendix 1, section 2).
27.2 The antenna installation shall not be changed during the competition.
27.3 All transmitters including the beacon(s) shall be clearly audible during the whole competition from the start point, using a receiver of average sensitivity. All transmissions shall be monitored and recorded by the organizer.
27.4 Transmitters begin to operate after all receivers have been collected at the start. Transmitters shall remain operating until the end of the time limit of the last competitor. The beacon transmitter(s) shall remain operating until all competitors have finished.
27.5 In the event of a thunderstorm, the Chairman of the International Jury is entitled to recall the competition immediately. In this case, all transmitters except for finish beacon(s) will be switched off. Finish beacon(s) remain in operation until all competitors reach the finish.
27.6 If the authorities of the organizing society make any transmitter identification compulsory, such identification can only be transmitted during the active minute.
27.7 The order in which competitors search for and discover the transmitters is entirely at their discretion except for the finish beacon, which shall be registered as the last one of the transmitters.
27.8 The finish beacons shall be placed at the entrance of the finish corridor. They shall be registered in the same way as other transmitters. Beacons for both bands share one flag and one registering device.
27.9 All transmitters shall be marked by a flag consisting of three squares 30 x 30 cm arranged in a triangular form. Each square shall be divided diagonally, one half being white and the other orange.
27.10 The flag shall be close to the transmitter antenna and not more than 4 meters away. The flag shall be visible to competitors when they reach the transmitter antenna.
27.11 To prove that competitors have visited each transmitter, there shall be at least two or more registering devices in the immediate vicinity of each flag.
27.12 Each transmitter must be easily recognizable by its code number, which shall be fixed to the flag or to the registering device for easy identification by the competitors. In addition, there must be another clear sign indicating the frequency band of the transmitter.
27.13 For World competition only, All transmitters shall be guarded.
27.14 The time at which each competitor finds a transmitter shall be recorded.
- Transmitters arrangement
28.1 Classic competitions are organized on both the 3.5 MHz and 144 MHz bands simultaneously. Categories are divided into two groups: one group contains categories M19, M21, M40, W19, and W21, the other group contains categories M50, M60, M70, W35, W50, and W60. On the first competition day, one group runs on the 3.5 MHz band and the other group on the 144 MHz band. On the second competition day, the bands are swapped.
2.15 For region 2 competitions, the Classic 2M and 80M events will be held on separate days. All categories will compete on the individual band on the same day.
28.2 There are 12 transmitters in the competition area, 6 on each band. Transmitters shall operate on each band in the following sequence:
transmitter code sent frequency operating period
finish beacon MO A continuously
transmitter No.1 MOE B in the first minute
transmitter No.2 MOI B in the second minute
transmitter No.3 MOS B in the third minute
transmitter No.4 MOH B in the fourth minute
transmitter No.5 MO5 B in the fifth minute
– of the 5-minute cycle, starting at 0:00.
- Finish and time-keeping
29.1 The competition ends for a competitor when the finish line is crossed. When using an electronic registration system, the competition ends for a competitor by the registration at the finish line
29.2 The finish corridor begins at the finish beacon and ends at the finish line. Its entrance shall not be wider than 10
- It shall be clearly marked on both sides by uninterrupted tape. The last 20 m shall be straight. The corridor
should normally be no longer than 250 m and its length shall be indicated by the siting referee at the team officials meeting a day prior to the competition.
29.3 The finish line shall be at least 3 m wide and shall be at right angle to the direction of the run-in. The exact position of the finish line shall be obvious to approaching competitors. Competitors in the finish corridor may run only in the direction from the beacon towards the finish line.
29.4 The finish time shall be measured when the competitor’s chest crosses the finish line. When using an electronic registration system, the finish time is given by the registration at the finish line. Times shall be rounded down to whole seconds. Times shall be given in either hours, minutes and seconds, or in minutes and seconds only.
29.5 Having completed the competition, a competitor may not re-enter the competition terrain without the permission of the organizer. A competitor who retires shall announce this at the finish immediately. That competitor shall in no way influence the competition nor help other competitors.
29.6 There shall be medical facilities and personnel at the finish, who are also equipped to work in the forest.
29.7 The time-keeping system shall meet the Technical Specifications for ARDF Equipment (see Appendix 1, section T3).
30.1 The place of an individual competitor depends on (first) the number of transmitters found and (second) his or her running time. Only transmitters which are scored for the particular category are considered. Competitors who have failed either to find any transmitter other than the finish beacon or who have exceed the time limit, shall not be classified.
30.2 The place of a team depends on (first) the sum of transmitters found and (second) the sum of times reached by the two classified team members possessing the best results.
30.3 Two or more competitors or teams having the same result shall be given the same placing in the results list. The position(s) following the tie shall remain vacant.
30.4 Provisional results shall be announced and displayed in the finish area during the competition. The official results shall be published not more than 2 hours after final approval of the provisional results by the Jury. They shall be handed out on the day of the competition to each team manager and to accredited media representatives and presented openly at three different places for general information at least
30.5 The official results shall include all participating competitors and teams.
30.6 At the end of the championship every Jury member, team leader and accredited media representative shall receive an official results list and the competition maps. Not more than one month after the event official results lists, competition maps with course details and further reports shall be published on or linked to the event website and IARU Region 2 ARDF WG website and sent in electronic form to every participating society. Further result lists and maps may be sold at a small charge to all interested.
31.1 The title of World Champion or Regional, Continental or USA Champion shall be awarded for the 3.5 and 144 MHz competitions and for each official category separately.
31.2 The following prizes shall be awarded in all competitions:
1st place Gold medal and certificate
2nd place Silver medal and certificate
3rd place Bronze medal and certificate
4th–6th place Certificate
31.3 If two or more competitors or teams have the same placing, they shall each receive the appropriate medal and/or certificate.
31.4 In the team classification, each classified member of the team shall receive the appropriate medal and/or certificate.
31.5 The organizer shall arrange a dignified prize-giving ceremony.
31.6 The prize-giving ceremonies shall be performed by the representatives of the organizing society and the IARU Regional organization.
31.7 During the prize-giving ceremony, the national flags of the first three competitors/teams should be flown and the national anthem of the winner may be played.
- Fair play
32.1 All persons taking part in an ARDF event shall behave with fairness and honesty. They shall have a sporting attitude and a spirit of friendship. Competitors shall show respect for each other, for officials, journalists, spectators and the inhabitants of the competition area. The competitors shall be as quiet as possible in the terrain.
32.2 It is absolutely forbidden to give or take any assistance to or from any person, including competitors, or to utilize any means of transport, except:
assistance provided by referees within the scope of their defined duties, as long as that assistance is equally
available to all competitors;
it is the duty of all competitors to help injured runners. No competitor will be disqualified for giving or receiving such an assistance, as long as he or she does not gain competitive advantage by doing so.
32.3 Doping is forbidden. The ARDF WG or during a championship the Jury may require doping control procedures to be conducted.
32.4 Strict secrecy shall be maintained regarding the courses and starting areas.
32.5 Surveying or training in the area declared out-of-bounds by the organizer is not allowed. Attempts to gain any information related to the courses, beyond that provided by the organizer, are not permitted before and during the competition.
32.6 Team officials, competitors, media representatives and spectators shall remain in the areas assigned to them.
32.7 Members of the international Jury and transmitter operators shall neither disturb or detain any competitor nor supply any information whatsoever. They shall remain quiet, wear inconspicuous clothing and shall not help competitors approaching transmitters. This also applies to all other persons in the competition area.
32.8 A competitor who breaks any rule, or who benefits from the breaking of any rule, shall be disqualified.
Appendix 1: Technical Specifications for Amateur Radio Direction Finding Equipment
T1.1 Receivers and antennas of any type may be used by the competitors.
T1.2 Any receiver producing audible interference in the 3.5 MHz or 144 MHz band at a distance of 10 meters or more shall not be used in the competitions.
T1.3 The International Jury may require tests on any competitor’s receiver prior to its use in the competitions.
T2.1 It is the responsibility of the organizing society to ensure that all transmitters in use comply with the relevant radio regulations in force in the country of operation with regard to their electric parameters, identification and to their being operated only by duly authorized operators.
T2.2 All transmitters within one competition shall have the same parameters and the same antenna installation.
T2.3 The frequency of the beacon transmitter shall be significantly different from the frequency of the other five transmitters.
T2.4 When not scheduled to be transmitting, neither the transmitter nor its antenna may radiate any RF energy.
T2.5 Antennas shall provide omnidirectional horizontal or vertical radiation patterns.
T2.6 Specifications for the 3.5 MHz transmitters:
Carrier frequency * 3510 … 3600 kHz
Frequency stability better than 50 ppm
Channel spacing between simultaneously working transmitters 30 kHz minimum
Undesired products level conforming to the national regulations
Output RF power 1 … 5 W
Mode A1A (keyed unmodulated carrier)
Keying speed 8 … 15 WPM
T2.7 Specifications for the 144 MHz transmitters:
Carrier frequency * 144.00 … 146.00 MHz
Frequency stability better than 50 ppm
Channel spacing between simultaneously working transmitters more than 200 kHz
Undesired products level conforming to the national regulations
Effective Radiated Power (ERP) 0.25 … 1 W
Mode A2A (keyed carrier modulated by AF tone or continuous carrier modulated by keyed AF tone)
Modulation depth 70 … 80 %
Keying speed 8 … 15 WPM
Antenna polarization horizontal
Antenna height 2 … 3 meters above ground level
Note: ( * ) Carrier frequency ranges indicated in these Rules are those normally used by IARU Region 1 societies.
Organisers in other Regions may employ different ranges to meet their band plan regulations. According to 13.5 of theseRules transmitter frequencies are to be stated in Bulletin 2, which is to be dispatched 6 months before the event.
T3. Time-keeping system
T3.1 The official competition time shall correspond to the official local time.
T3.2 Two independent time-keeping systems, a primary and a secondary, shall be used.
T3.3 The maximum deviation of the clocks at the start and finish line is ONE SECOND against the official time during the whole competition.
T3.4 The maximum deviation of the transmitting periods is FIVE SECONDS against the official time during the whole competition. The maximum transmitting overlap of two transmitters is FIVE SECONDS.
T4. Other equipment
T4.1 Any other equipment used by the organizer (service radio net, time-keeping system, computers, electronic marking devices etc.) shall not cause audible interference to competitors’ receivers.
T4.2 The use of satellite positioning devices is allowed provided they do not contain digital map of the terrain (“nonmapping” devices).
Appendix 2: Principles for course planning
These principles aim at establishing common standards for the planning of ARDF courses in order to ensure fair competitions and to safeguard the unique character of ARDF.
P1.2 Application of these principles
Courses in all international ARDF events shall be planned in accordance with these principles. They should also serve as general guidelines for the planning of other competitive ARDF events.
P2. Basic principles
P2.1 Aim of good course planning
The aim of course planning is to offer competitors courses correctly designed for their expected abilities. Results shall reflect the competitors’ technical and physical ability.
P2.2 Sitting referee’s golden rules
The sitting referee shall keep the following principles in mind:
the unique character of ARDF: the combination of direction finding under time stress and the physical ability
the fairness of the competition
the protection of wildlife and the environment
the needs of the media and spectators
P2.2.1 Unique character
Every sport has its own character. The unique character of ARDF is to find a number of transmitters hidden in unknown terrain against the clock. This demands special skills: handling of the direction finding receiver and interpreting measurements, accurate map reading, route choice evaluation, concentration under stress, quick decision making, running in natural terrain, etc.
Fairness is a basic requirement in competitive sport. Unless the greatest care is taken at each step of course planning and transmitter placing, luck can easily become significant in ARDF competitions. The sitting referee shall consider all such factors to ensure that the contest is fair and that all competitors face the same conditions during every part of the course.
P2.2.3 Competitors enjoyment
The popularity of ARDF can only be enhanced if competitors are satisfied with the courses they are given. Careful course planning is therefore necessary to ensure that courses are appropriate in terms of length, physical and technical difficulty, transmitters sitting, etc. In this respect it is particularly important that each course is suitable for the competitors doing that course.
P2.2.4 Wildlife and the environment
The environment is sensitive: wildlife may be disturbed and the ground as well as the vegetation may suffer from overuse. The environment also includes people living in the competition area, walls, fences, cultivated land, buildings and other constructions, etc. It is usually possible to find ways to avoid interference with the most sensitive areas without damage. Experience and research have shown that even large events can be organized in sensitive areas without permanent damage if the correct precautions are taken and the courses are well planned. It is very important that the sitting referee ensures that there is access to the chosen terrain and that any sensitive areas in the terrain are discovered in advance.
P3. ARDF course
The terrain shall be chosen so that a fair competition is offered to all competitors. To safeguard the character of the sport, the terrain should be runnable and suitable for testing the ARDF skills of the competitors. On a good ARDF course, competitors are forced to concentrate on navigation throughout the race. Sections requiring no attention to navigation should be avoided (if possible).
Alternative routes force competitors to use the map to assess the terrain and to draw conclusions from it. Route choices make competitors think independently and will split up the field, thus minimizing “following.” A good course shall disperse the competitors throughout the competition area and not bring them together. The transmitters should be intentionally placed and numbered so that competitors of different categories have different “optimum first” transmitters. The direction of the start corridor carries a certain weight in these considerations.
Courses should not contain routes or transmitter order choices resulting in any advantage or disadvantage which cannot be foreseen from the receiver or the map by a competitor under competitive conditions.
Course sections which encourage competitors to cross the start or finish area or forbidden or dangerous areas must be avoided.
The start area should be so situated and organized that:
there is a warm up area and shelter sufficient for all competitors
waiting competitors cannot see the bearings taken or route choices made by those who have already started.
The start point should not be located in the best part of the competition area – an area of 1.5 km 700m in diameter
around the start cannot be used for transmitters.
The start corridors shall be easy-to-run and clearly marked, especially at their ends and the following terrain should be runnable.
All transport from the start to the finish (competitors clothing, people) shall be well organized in order to prevent information transfer in the reverse direction.
Transmitter sites are the most important element of an ARDF course and will largely determine its quality. It is particularly important that the map portrays the ground accurately in the vicinity of the transmitters. There shall be no objects disturbing the electro-magnetic field which might upset the bearings taken in the vicinity of the transmitters.
It is necessary to choose transmitter sites with the greatest care. Especially the ‘acute angle’ effect must be avoided meaning that incoming competitors will be led into the transmitter site by outgoing runners. The mechanical performance of the transmitter, antenna and registering device with a flag shall be rugged. The transmitter and its accessories shall continue to operate for about eight hours under ANY circumstances. The antenna of the transmitter shall be properly installed and the transmitter final stage shall be properly tuned into the antenna. The counterpoises shall be installed in a way that they do not obstruct or trip competitors running over them.
Flags should be positioned such that competitors may see them when they are within ten meters of the transmitter. For fairness, the visibility of the flag should be the same whether or not there is a competitor near it.
The arrangement of the finish beacon, finish corridor and the whole finish area shall be distinct, clear and not confusing.
The finish corridor shall be easy-to-run, as straight as possible and at least 3 m wide. Two protective zones along both sides of the finishing corridor are recommended for better visibility and to prevent spectators from getting in the competitors’ way.
P4. Sitting referee
The sitting referee should be fully acquainted with the terrain before he or she starts to plan the course. The sitting referee should also be aware that on the day of the competition the conditions regarding map and terrain could be different from those which exist at the time the courses are planned.
The person responsible for course planning shall have an understanding and appreciation of the qualities of a good course gained from personal experience. He or she shall also be familiar with the theory of course planning and appreciate the special requirements of different categories.
The sitting referee shall be able to assess, on site, the various factors which can affect the competition, such as the terrain, radio wave propagation, the quality of the map, the presence of participants and spectators, etc. The sitting referee is responsible for the courses and the running of the competition between the start and the finish line. It is strongly recommended that the sitting referee’s work shall be checked by another qualified referee to avoid errors which might have serious consequences.
Appendix 3: Approved registering devices
C1. The only automatically approved control registering system is the SportIdent system.
C2. A backup unit must be present at each transmitter – either a second electronic unit or a pin punch. It is the competitor’s responsibility to ensure that the electronic chip is held in the electronic registering device until the feedback signal has been received. If, and only if, no feedback signal is received, the competitor must use the backup unit.
C3. When using the pin punch backup, the competitor can punch either his/her map or start number bib. He/she is still responsible for the correct mark which must be clearly identifiable at the finish.
C4. The use of any other registering system requires prior approval of the ARDF WG.
Appendix 5: Start list preparation
On the evening of day one (arrival day) of a championship the nominations of all competitors shall be in the hands of the organizer. To prepare the start list all nominations are to be split up into their corresponding categories and these into one of the following two groups:
categories with up to 40 competitors – in which competitors shall start singly ;
categories with more than 40 competitors – in which two competitors shall start together ;
Note: When presenting the list of competitors to the organizing society (see part A – organization, para.8.3.) team leaders are also requested to indicate the starting sequence of the competitors in each category.
To guarantee fairness and to avoid any chances of manipulation it is clear that the preparation of the start list becomes of great importance for any championship. The following balloting procedure has been designed to fulfill these requirements and organizers shall make themselves acquainted with the balloting method well in advance of the event. Although appearing rather complex – especially in written form – organizers will soon gain experience of how to handle the system. Furthermore it is to be expected that suitable computer software shall be made available shortly by the ARDF WG.
At larger competitions with many societies having nominated the maximum number of competitors in all or nearly all categories, the manual procedure to draw up the start list cannot maintain all the essential requirements. The manual procedure then has to be replaced by a computer program that fulfils all the requirements.
Balloting procedure to prepare the start list for categories with up to 40 competitors:
Note: Categories may be merged during the balloting process if this does not increase the number of start groups.
Single competitors and those belonging to teams of two or three have to be spread equally over the whole of the start period. This is easy for teams of three: every competitor shall be placed into a different third of the starting period. Competitors of teams of two and single runners, however, are to be spread by the following balloting procedure:
Balloting shall start by drawing lots for the two person teams (alphabetical order of the societies involved). For this procedure a ballot box has to be filled with three lots each marked with the number of the corresponding starting third. Two of these lots shall be drawn for the first two person team and the two runners shall start in the corresponding starting thirds. The lot which is still in the box shall be drawn for the next two person team. As there are no more lots in the box the three lots shall be replaced into the box and another lot shall be drawn for the second runner of the second two person team. The remaining two lots shall be drawn for the third team. The box shall then be refilled again and balloting continues until all two person teams have been distributed equally over the three starting thirds. The same procedure shall be applied to distribute the single runners.
Now follows the determination of the starting sequence for this category. Lots carrying the numbers of their starting thirds (as used before) also have to be marked with the name of the society they stand for (except all blanks, of course, which are to be employed in this process as well – see below). Three ballot boxes are required – one for each start third. Into each of these boxes one lot for each runner of a three person team is to be placed. Also the lots of the balloting procedure of the teams of two and the single runners must be added to the corresponding boxes. Eventually blanks must be used to compensate for unequal numbers of lots in any of the three boxes. Further blanks are to be added to every box until the total number of lots in each box corresponds to a third of the starting groups of the category having the highest number of starting groups in the championship. There must be a minimum of 33 lots spread over the three boxes, however, because a society can send up to 33 competitors (3 runners in 11 categories).
For the final preparation of the starting list please see below.
Balloting procedure to prepare the start list for categories with more than 40 competitors:
Competitors in these categories have to be split up into “top-runners” and “other-runners”. To be selected as a top runner the organizer shall consider the results lists of the last two ARDF Championships and in doing so it will be irrelevant if the same or another sportsman has been nominated by his or her national society for the category concerned. Only the society to whom she or he belongs is relevant. It will be taken for granted that a new sportsman from a particular society will be as good as his previous colleague.
For ARDF World Championships, top-runners shall be selected on basis of the last two ARDF World Championships.
For Regional Championships the results of the last two Regional Championships shall be considered.
Considering the results of the two 3,5 MHz and the two 144MHz competitions of the last two championships and starting with position no. 1 and working down from the top, the organiser shall note separately for every category all those societies which have had runners in top positions. All competitors (of a certain category) nominated by these societies shall then be listed as “top runners” until at least 50% of the total number of competitors in this category is reached. For this procedure it shall be irrelevant if these societies have nominated teams of three or two or single runners. The other competitors in this category shall be listed as “other runners”. If the results lists of the last two championships do not yield 50% “top-runners“, competitors from the remaining societies should be considered. The sequence of the societies shall be in alphabetical order. For categories with less than 40 participants there now follows the procedure for the preparation of the two independent ballots for “top-runners” and “other-runners”. First teams of two and single runners shall be distributed equally over the three start thirds. Then to each box of the three thirds an equal number of runners of the three person teams has to be added (not forgetting eventual blanks) and finally the lots shall be drawn – as described below – to determine the starting sequence of the “top-runners” of this category. Nearly the same procedure shall be applied to establish the starting sequence of the “other-runners”. However, before drawing, the blanks have to be placed into those start groups which are already filled with blanks of the top runners of the same category. Then the lots of the “other runners” are being drawn and distributed over the various start groups.
Final preparation of the start list: lots resulting from the previous balloting procedures for each category and each
starting third have been placed into boxes – one for each starting third and category. Drawing one lot after the other and starting with box number 1 (and starting e.g. with the M21 category) the organizer sets up the start list for this category. If the first third has been finished, start thirds two and three shall follow. If by changing from one box to the next the last drawn society and the one drawn out of the new box are the same, the lot drawn last shall be placed one start group later and the empty space be filled by the following lot. A similar procedure applies if two runners of the same society have been drawn for the same start group (within different categories, of course). If placing of such a lot into the next later start group is impossible (because the following group(s) is/are already filled with this same society for other categories) that lot shall be placed at the first possible location in exchange for a lot that might be in this position. If a replaced lot should also not fit, the exchange process has to continue and in cases where this occurs at the end of a starting third, the exchange process has to return to the start of this third only. After all lots of the first category have been drawn and their starting positions been marked, balloting must continue for the other categories in the same way as described above until the start list is completed. If organized in a suitable way the drawing procedure offers an excellent opportunity for media and public attention. The best time for drawing would be the morning of the day after arrival. Studying the results lists of the last two earlier championships well before this day, the organizer has ample time to prepare everything that is required to finish this spectacular procedure within a reasonable time. Supervised by one or several Jury members, the lots being drawn – carrying so far only the names of the societies – could be fixed on a large board (or any other suitable display) visible to all present. The organiser should have at his/her disposal a list of the names of all competitors and the sequence in which the team leader wishes them to start. So each lot on the board shall be marked with the name of the corresponding competitor. The organizer can enter all the details into the computer system to print the start list for immediate distribution.
Although spectacular, it is obvious that a manual balloting procedure will consume a certain time span (two to three
hours typically). So if the organizer prefers to employ an electronic balloting system he/she must obtain the permission of the chairman of the ARDF Working Group as early as possible but not later than three months before the start of the championship indicating at the same time which software is to be employed.
Any computer program must perform the same functions as the manual balloting procedure. Improvements in the balloting procedure as such are permitted.
The permission by the chairman shall be granted only if a) the organizer intends to use an approved software for the balloting process, or b) the organizer obtains approval for his own software.
To obtain approval of any balloting software, this software together with description and documentation of the algorithms used has to be sent to the chairman of the ARDF WG at least six months before the championship. The software shall be tested and having been passed the software becomes “approved software for balloting in ARDF Championships”.
Such software shall be added to a software pool and becomes public domain for use at International Championships.
An electronic balloting procedure shall be carried out on a computer designated by the ARDF WG Chairman. The organising society shall present the list of all participants. The result lists of the last two championships shall be supplied by the chairman.
Appendix 8: Rules for the ARDF Foxoring Competition
F1. Basic explanation
Foxoring is a special format of the ARDF competition. Its main features are as follows:
At the start, competitors get competition map with marked start, finish beacon and nominal positions of the transmitters.
Transmitters except for the finish beacon are placed close to their nominal positions marked on the maps.
All transmitters except for the finish beacon are very weak and therefore audible only at the close vicinity of the antenna. All transmitters operate continuously.
The RF field strength of each transmitter is adjusted so that :
◦ the transmitter is clearly audible at its nominal position marked on the map AND at the distance of 30m from its real position
◦ the transmitter is NOT audible at the distance of 250m from its real position.
Competitors shall run to the close vicinity of the transmitters by means of the map and then complete the final approach by means of the direction finding receiver.
The Foxoring Rules are based on the Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding. The points as stated below replace identically numbered points of part A and B of the Rules.
F16. Training / model event
F16.1 For training purposes the organizing society shall offer a model event on the day prior to the competition to demonstrate the transmitter features, the set-up of transmitters and antennas, the registering devices etc., which will be used in the competitions. One transmitter of each frequency which will be used in the competition shall be installed.
F17. Starting order
F17.6. Competitors from the same category may not start at the same time in the foxoring competition.
F17.7 The competitors within one category start at equal start intervals. Minimum start interval is 2 minutes.
F17.8 All competitors of a particular category shall start in the same start corridor
F20.3 Transmitters including the finish beacon shall be located not less than 250 meters apart. The transmitter nearest to the start shall be located not less than 250 meters from the start.
F20.7 Number of transmitters and course lengths assigned to particular categories:
Category number of transmitters effective course length
W19 5…8 + finish beacon 4…6 km
W21 6…10 + finish beacon 5…7 km
W35 5…8 + finish beacon 4…6 km
W50 4…7 + finish beacon 3…5 km
W60 4…7 + finish beacon 3…5 km
M19 6…8 + finish beacon 6…8 km
M21 8…10+ finish beacon 7…9 km
M40 6…8 + finish beacon 6…8 km
M50 5…8 + finish beacon 5…7 km
M60 5…8 + finish beacon 4…6 km
M70 4…7 + finish beacon 3…5 km
F23.3 The competition map shall cover the whole competition area including start, finish beacon and all transmitters.
The map start (the point where competitors obtain the maps), nominal positions of all transmitters assigned to the particular category, finish beacon and the finish corridor shall be clearly marked on the map. The start is marked by a triangle (symbol 701), all transmitters by a circle (symbol 702), the finish corridor by a dashed line (symbol 705) and the finish by two concentric circles (symbol 706).
F23.6 Maps shall be protected against moisture.
F26.1 On arrival at the competition area, competitors shall keep their receivers. Spare receivers and components, clearly marked as property of a particular team or competitor, shall be placed at an indicated point just beyond the starting line beside the starting corridor.
F26.5 Competitors shall enter the pre-start area not earlier than FIVE MINUTES before their own start. Competitors receive maps after their start, at the starting line or at the indicated point within the starting corridor.
F27.3 Each transmitter shall be clearly audible during the whole competition at its nominal position marked on the map AND at the distance of 30m from its real position. Transmitters shall NOT be audible at the distance of 250 m from their real positions. The finish beacon operates at normal power and therefore shall be clearly audible during the whole competition from the start point.
F27.9 All transmitters except for finish beacon have no flags. Registering devices shall be placed no more than one meter from each transmitter.
F27.10 not valid
F28. Transmitters arrangement
F28.2 There are number of transmitters in the competition area plus the finish beacon. Transmitters shall operate
Technical Specifications for ARDF Foxoring
FT2.6 Specifications for the 3.5 MHz transmitters:
Carrier frequency 3510 … 3600 kHz
Frequency stability better than 50 ppm
Channel spacing between the beacon and other transmitters 30 kHz minimum
Undesired products level conforming to the national regulations
Output RF power (finish beacon) 1 … 5 W
Output RF power (other transmitters) 10 mW
Mode A1A (keyed unmodulated carrier)
Keying speed 8 … 15 WPM
Antenna (finish beacon) vertical
Antenna (other transmitters) vertical (approx. 30 cm long